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To Blue To Which The Attribute Of Coolness Peculiarly Belongs It Is








discordant when standing alone with yellow or with red, unresolved by
their proper contrasts or harmonizing colours, purple and green. As an
archeus or ruling colour, orange is one of the most agreeable keys in
toning a picture, from the richness and warmth of its effects. If it
predominate therein, for the colouring to be true, the violet and purple
should be more or less red, the red more or less scarlet, the yellow
more or less intense and orange, and the orange itself be intense and
vivid. Further, the greens must lose some of their blue and consequently
become yellower, the light blues be more or less light grey, and the
deep indigo more or less marrone.

Although the secondary colours are capable of being obtained by
admixture of the primaries in an infinitude of hues, tints, and shades;
yet simple original pigments of whatever class--whether secondary,
tertiary, or semi-neutral--are, it has been said before, often superior
to those compounded, both in a chemical and artistic sense. Hence a
thoroughly good original orange is only of less value and importance
than a thoroughly good original yellow, a green than a blue, or a
purple than a red. To produce pure and permanent compound hues requires
practice and knowledge, and we too often see in the works of painters
combinations neither pleasing nor stable. Colours are associated with
each other which do not mix kindly, and compounds formed of which one or
both constituents are fugitive. As a consequence, mixed tints are
frequently wanting in clearness, and, where they do not disappear
altogether, resolve themselves into some primary colour; orange becoming
red by a fading of the yellow, green yellow by a fading of the blue, and
purple blue by a fading of the red. Again, with regard to compound
tints, there is the danger of one colour reacting upon and injuring
another, as in the case of greens obtained from chrome yellow and
Prussian blue, where the former ultimately destroys the latter. Of
course a mixture of two permanent pigments which do not react on each
other will remain permanent; the green, for instance, furnished by
aureolin and native ultramarine lasting as long as the ground itself. To
produce, however, the effects desired, the artist does not always stop
to consider the fitness and stability of his colours in compounding,
even if he possess the needed acquaintance with their physical and
chemical properties. At all times, therefore, but especially when such
knowledge is slight, good orange, &c., pigments are of more or less
value, as by their use the employment of inferior mixtures is to a great
extent avoided. In mingling primary with primary, if one colour does not
compound well with the other, or is fugacious, the result is failure;
but a secondary is not so easily affected by admixture: a green, for
example, is seldom quite ruined by the injudicious addition of blue or
yellow; and even if either of the latter be fugitive, the green will
remain a green if originally durable. Thus the secondaries, if they are
not already of the colour required, may be brightened or subdued,
deepened or paled, with comparative impunity. The artist who, from long
years of experience, knows exactly the properties and capabilities of
the colours he employs, may in a measure dispense with secondary
pigments, and obtain from the primaries mixed tints at once stable,
beautiful, and pure; but even he must sometimes resort to them, as when
a green like emerald or viridian is required, which no mixture of blue
and yellow will afford. The primaries, by reason of their not being able
to be composed of other colours, occupy the first place on the palette,
and are of the first importance; but the secondaries are far too useful
to be disregarded, and have a value of their own, which both veteran and
tyro have cause to acknowledge.

The list of original orange pigments was once so deficient, that in some
old treatises on the subject of colours, they are not even mentioned.
This may have arisen, not merely from their paucity, but from the
unsettled signification of the term orange, as well as from improperly
calling these pigments reds, yellows, &c. In these days, however, orange
pigments are sufficiently numerous to merit a chapter to themselves;
they indeed comprise some of the best colours on the palette.

TTITLE BURNT SIENNA,





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